Anthropologists designate early human cultures by their tools.The earliest cultural period, the Paleolithic, dates from the first use of stone tools.During this long span, people were hunters, fishers, and gatherers but not producers of food.They learned to make and use increasingly sophisticated tools of stone and perishable material like wood, they learned to make and control fire, and they acquired language and the ability to use it to pass on what they had learned.The first engravings of the sculpture were not made until well after 1504, but Dürer must have seen a drawing of it.Dürer was a complete master of engraving by 1504: human and snake skin, animal fur, and tree bark and leaves are rendered distinctively.Paleolithic society was probably characterized by a division of labor by sex.men most likely hunted, fished, and fought other families, clans and tribes.
This master's course is open to all students whose research focuses on post-medieval Britain and Europe (which may also include non-European elements, for example European expansion, Empire building or emigration).
These early humans, dependent on nature for food and vulnerable to wild beasts and natural disasters, may have developed responses to the world rooted in fear of the unknown of the uncertainties of human life or the overpowering forces of nature.
Religious and magical beliefs and practices may have emerged in an effort to coerce the superhuman forces thought to animate or direct the natural world.
Of particular interest is the 1764–1765 census of Polish Jewry which undercounted the Jewish population (since the census was for purposes of taxation, Jews tended to evade enumeration) but is nevertheless a valuable source for studying the Jewish family and household.
In this material women are prominent not only as wives, mothers and daughters, but as servants and widowed heads of households as well.